34:1 Metal Gearmotor 25Dx67L mm MP 12V with 48 CPR Encoder

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Pololu item #: 4864
Brand: Pololu
Status: Active and Preferred 
RoHS 3 compliant

This gearmotor consists of a medium-power, 12 V brushed DC motor combined with a 34.014:1 metal spur gearbox, and it has an integrated 48 CPR quadrature encoder on the motor shaft, which provides 1632.67 counts per revolution of the gearbox’s output shaft. The gearmotor is cylindrical, with a diameter just under 25 mm, and the D-shaped output shaft is 4 mm in diameter and extends 12.5 mm from the face plate of the gearbox. This gearmotor is also available without an encoder.

Key specifications:

voltage no-load performance stall extrapolation
12 V 230 RPM, 100 mA 4.7 kg⋅cm (65 oz⋅in), 1.8 A

Alternatives available with variations in these parameter(s): gear ratio motor type encoders? Select variant…


25D mm metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder.

25D mm metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder.

25D mm metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder (with end cap removed).

25D mm metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder (with end cap removed).

The 25D and 37D mm metal gearmotors with encoders have cables that are terminated with a 6-pin, 0.1″-pitch female connector.

Pololu 25D mm gearmotor with bracket.

A 25D mm gearmotor connected to a scooter wheel by the 4 mm scooter wheel adapter.

Pololu 60×8mm wheel on a Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor.

Dagu Wild Thumper wheel 120×60mm (chrome) with Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor.

Dimensions of the Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotors with encoders. Units are mm over [inches].

An assortment of Pololu metal gearmotors.


These cylindrical brushed DC gearmotors are available in a wide range of gear ratios and with five different motors (two power levels of 6 V motors and three power levels of 12 V motors). The gearmotors all have the same 25 mm diameter case and 4 mm diameter gearbox output shaft, so it is generally easy to swap one version for another if your design requirements change (though the length of the gearbox tends to increase with the gear ratio). The motor and encoder portion is available by itself (no gearbox) for each combination of power level and nominal operating voltage, and versions without the encoder are also available. See the 25D metal gearmotor datasheet (2MB pdf) for more information, including detailed performance graphs for each gearmotor version. You can also use our dynamically sortable 25D gearmotor comparison table to search for the version that offers the best combination of speed, torque, and current draw for your particular application. A more basic comparison table is available below.

Gear Ratio No-Load Speed
Stall Torque
Max Power

Without Encoder

With Encoder
(kg ⋅ cm) (oz ⋅ in)
12 V High-Power
5.0 A 250 mA

300 mA
1:1 (no gearbox) 10,000 0.4 5.5 10 item #4840
4.4:1 2200 1.7 24 9.4 item #3201 item #4841
9.7:1 1000 3.9 54 10 item #3202 item #4842
20.4:1 500 7.4 100 9.4 item #3203 item #4843
34:1 300 11 150 8.9 item #3204 item #4844
47:1 220 15 210 8.4 item #3205 item #4845
75:1 130 22 310 item #3206 item #4846
99:1 100 29 400 item #3207 item #4847
12 V Medium-Power
1.8 A 80 mA

100 mA
1:1 (no gearbox) 8200 0.17 2.4 3.5 item #4860
4.4:1 1800 0.71 10 3.2 item #3225 item #4861
9.7:1 800 1.7 24 3.4 item #3226 item #4862
20.4:1 380 3.2 44 3.1 item #3227 item #4863
34:1 230 4.7 65 2.8 item #3228 item #4864
47:1 170 6.4 89 2.8 item #3229 item #4865
75:1 100 8.5 120 2.3 item #3230 item #4866
99:1 79 11 150 2.3 item #3231 item #4867
172:1 46 18 250 2.1 item #3232 item #4868
227:1 35 24 330 item #3233 item #4869
12 V Low-Power
0.9 A 50 mA

60 mA
1:1 (no gearbox) 5600 0.14 1.9 1.8 item #4880
4.4:1 1200 0.53 7.4 1.7 item #3249 item #4881
9.7:1 580 1.3 18 1.8 item #3250 item #4882
20.4:1 280 2.4 33 1.7 item #3251 item #4883
34:1 170 3.7 51 1.6 item #3252 item #4884
47:1 120 4.8 67 1.4 item #3253 item #4885
75:1 75 7.1 99 1.4 item #3254 item #4886
99:1 57 8.7 120 1.2 item #3255 item #4887
172:1 33 13 180 1.1 item #3256 item #4888
227:1 25 16 220 1.0 item #3257 item #4889
378:1 15 23 320 item #3258 item #4890
6 V High-Power
6.0 A 420 mA

500 mA
1:1 (no gearbox) 10,000 0.3 4 7 item #4800
4.4:1 2200 1.2 17 6.7 item #1570 item #4801
9.7:1 1000 2.3 32 5.9 item #1571 item #4802
20.4:1 480 4.8 67 5.9 item #1572 item #4803
34:1 290 6.8 94 5.1 item #1573 item #4804
47:1 210 9.1 130 4.9 item #1574 item #4805
75:1 130 14 190 4.5 item #1575 item #4806
99:1 99 15 210 3.9 item #1576 item #4807
172:1 57 27 380 item #1577 item #4808
6 V Low-Power
2.0 A 100 mA

120 mA
1:1 (no gearbox) 6200 0.15 2.1 2.1 item #4820
4.4:1 1300 0.63 8.7 2.1 item #1581 item #4821
9.7:1 630 1.3 18 1.9 item #1582 item #4822
20.4:1 290 2.5 35 1.9 item #1583 item #4823
34:1 180 3.9 54 1.7 item #1584 item #4824
47:1 130 4.8 67 1.5 item #1585 item #4825
75:1 80 7.5 100 1.5 item #1586 item #4826
99:1 61 9.1 130 1.4 item #1587 item #4827
172:1 35 14 190 1.2 item #1588 item #4828
227:1 27 17 240 1.1 item #1589 item #4829
378:1 16 25 350 item #1590 item #4830
499:1 12 31 430 item #1591 item #4831

Note: The listed stall torques and currents are theoretical extrapolations; units will typically stall well before these points as the motors heat up. Stalling or overloading gearmotors can greatly decrease their lifetimes and even result in immediate damage. The recommended upper limit for continuously applied loads is 4 kg⋅cm (55 oz⋅in), and the recommended upper limit for intermittently permissible torque is 8 kg⋅cm (110 oz⋅in). Stalls can also result in rapid (potentially on the order of seconds) thermal damage to the motor windings and brushes; a general recommendation for brushed DC motor operation is 25% or less of the stall current.

In general, these kinds of motors can run at voltages above and below their nominal voltages (they can begin rotating at voltages as low as 1 V); lower voltages might not be practical, and higher voltages could start negatively affecting the life of the motor.

These gearmotors are functionally identical to the previous versions we carried without end caps (they use the same motor, encoder, and gearboxes). The black plastic end cap is easily removable if you need to access the encoder or want to slightly reduce the overall gearmotor size, but there is a little bit of base plastic that will remain, as shown in the picture below:

Details for item #4864

Exact gear ratio: ``(22×20×22×22×23) / (12×12×10×10×10) ~~ bb(34.014:1)``


The diagram below shows the dimensions of the 25D mm line of gearmotors (units are mm over [inches]). This diagram is also available as a downloadable PDF (171k pdf).

Dimensions of the Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotors with encoders. Units are mm over [inches].

Warning: Do not screw too far into the mounting holes as the screws can hit the gears. We recommend screwing no further than 6 mm (0.24″) into the screw hole.

25D mm metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder (with end cap removed).

Using the encoder

A two-channel Hall effect encoder is used to sense the rotation of a magnetic disk on a rear protrusion of the motor shaft. The quadrature encoder provides a resolution of 48 counts per revolution of the motor shaft when counting both edges of both channels. To compute the counts per revolution of the gearbox output, multiply the gear ratio by 48. The motor/encoder has six color-coded, 8″ (20 cm) leads terminated by a 1×6 female header with a 0.1″ pitch, as shown in the main product picture. This header works with standard 0.1″ male headers and our male jumper and precrimped wires. If this header is not convenient for your application, you can pull the crimped wires out of the header or cut the header off. The following table describes the wire functions:

Color Function
Red motor power (connects to one motor terminal)
Black motor power (connects to the other motor terminal)
Green encoder GND
Blue encoder Vcc (3.5 V to 20 V)
Yellow encoder A output
White encoder B output

The Hall sensor requires an input voltage, Vcc, between 3.5 and 20 V and draws a maximum of 10 mA. The A and B outputs are square waves from 0 V to Vcc approximately 90° out of phase. The frequency of the transitions tells you the speed of the motor, and the order of the transitions tells you the direction. The following oscilloscope capture shows the A and B (yellow and white) encoder outputs using a motor voltage of 6 V and a Hall sensor Vcc of 5 V:

Encoder A and B outputs for 25D mm HP 6V metal gearmotor with 48 CPR encoder (motor running at 6 V).

By counting both the rising and falling edges of both the A and B outputs, it is possible to get 48 counts per revolution of the motor shaft. Using just a single edge of one channel results in 12 counts per revolution of the motor shaft, so the frequency of the A output in the above oscilloscope capture is 12 times the motor rotation frequency.

Gearmotor accessories

The face plate has two mounting holes threaded for M3 screws. You can use our custom-designed 25D mm metal gearmotor bracket (shown in the picture below) to mount the gearmotor to your project via these mounting holes and the screws that come with the bracket.

Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor bracket pair.

Pololu 25D mm gearmotor with encoder mounted to 25D mm bracket.

The 4 mm diameter gearbox output shaft works with Pololu multi-hub wheels as shown in the left picture below. That shaft also works with the Pololu universal aluminum mounting hub for 4mm shafts, which can be used to mount our larger Pololu wheels (60mm-, 70mm-, 80mm-, and 90mm-diameter) or custom wheels and mechanisms to the gearmotor’s output shaft as shown in the right picture below.

Pololu 80×10mm multi-hub wheel on a Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor with encoder.

Pololu 60×8mm wheel with 4mm hub adapter on Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor with encoder.

Alternatively, you could use our 4mm scooter wheel adapter to mount many common scooter, skateboard, and inline skate wheels to the gearmotor’s output shaft as shown in the left picture below. For a general-purpose hex adapter, consider our 12mm hex wheel adapter, which lets you use this motor with many common hobby RC wheels as shown in the right picture below.

A 25D mm gearmotor with encoder connected to a scooter wheel by the 4mm scooter wheel adapter.

12mm hex wheel adapter for 4mm shaft on a 25D mm metal gearmotor with encoder.

These are the same type of motors used in the Wild Thumper all-terrain chassis, so the gearbox’s output shaft also works directly with the hex adapters included with the 120mm-diameter Wild Thumper wheels as shown in the image below:

Dagu Wild Thumper wheel 120×60mm (metallic red) and Pololu 25D mm metal gearmotor with encoder.

We have a number of motor drivers and motor controllers that work with these 25D mm metal gearmotors. For the LP and MP versions, we recommend our TB9051FTG-based drivers, for which we have a basic single carrier, a dual-channel shield for Arduino, and a dual-channel expansion board for Raspberry Pi. For the HP versions, we recommend our VNH5019-based motor drivers (available as single and dual carriers), though these can also be a good choice for the lower-power motors.

TB9051FTG Single Motor Driver Carrier.

Pololu dual VNH5019 motor driver shield for Arduino.

If you are looking for higher-level control interfaces, such as USB, RC, analog voltages, I²C, or TTL serial, consider our Simple Motor Controllers, Jrk motor controllers, or RoboClaw motor controllers; these controllers are available in various power levels, and the appropriate one depends on the particular version of 25D mm motor you have (we generally recommend a motor controller that can handle continuous currents above the stall current of your motor).

High-Power Simple Motor Controller G2 18v15.

Jrk G2 21v3 USB Motor Controller with Feedback.

RoboClaw 2×7A Motor Controller (V5B) in its included case.

We have an assortment of Hall effect-based current sensors to choose from for those who need to monitor motor current:

ACS711EX current sensor carrier -15.5A to +15.5A.

ACS714 current sensor carrier -5A to +5A.

Selecting the right gearmotor

We offer a wide selection of metal gearmotors that offer different combinations of speed and torque. Our metal gearmotor comparison table can help you find the motor that best meets your project’s requirements.


Size: 25D x 67L mm1
Weight: 101 g
Shaft diameter: 4 mm2

General specifications

Gear ratio: 34.014:1
No-load speed @ 12V: 230 rpm3
No-load current @ 12V: 0.10 A4
Stall current @ 12V: 1.8 A5
Stall torque @ 12V: 4.7 kg·cm5
Max output power @ 12V: 2.8 W
No-load speed @ 6V: 115 rpm6
Stall current @ 6V: 0.90 A6
Stall torque @ 6V: 2.4 kg·cm6
Motor type: 12V, 1.8A stall (MP 12V)

Performance at maximum efficiency

Max efficiency @ 12V: 40 %
Speed at max efficiency: 200 rpm
Torque at max efficiency: 0.54 kg·cm
Current at max efficiency: 0.24 A
Output power at max efficiency: 1.1 W

General specifications

Lead length: 8 in7
Encoders?: Y


Length measurement is from gearbox face plate to back of encoder cap (it does not include the output shaft). See dimension diagram for details.
D shaft.
Typical; ±20%.
Typical, ±50%; no-load current depends on internal friction, which is affected by many factors, including ambient temperature and duration of motor operation.
Stalling is likely to damage the gearmotor. Stall parameters come from a theoretical extrapolation of performance at loads far from stall. As the motor heats up, as happens as it approaches an actual stall, the stall torque and current decrease.
This motor will run at 6 V but is intended for operation at 12 V.
May vary by a few inches.

File downloads

Frequently-asked questions

What material is the gearbox output shaft made of, and can I get the shaft customized?
The shaft is composed of hardened stainless steel. Some customization is generally possible (e.g., different length or no D-shaft) for sufficiently high-volume orders. If this is something you are interested in, please email us.

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